domingo, 21 de novembro de 2010

New Yorkers want to "reduce" their accent

Here's something interesting on the New York accent: some "New Yawkers" feel so uncomfortable speaking with their original accent that they look for speech therapists to reduce it. For those interested in pronunciation and regionalism, it is really worth reading.

Toning down the NY accent

quinta-feira, 18 de novembro de 2010

Previously on "Language Acquisition and Bilingualism"

Interlanguage is a transition system made up by the learner through their second language acquisition (learning) process. It is the language produced by a non-native speaker, which is bound to suffer from the interference of their first language, until the learner has reached his peak in L2.

To Stephen Krashen, L2 can be:
» acquired - unconsciously;
» learned - consciously;
However, all learned knowledge will not be part of the acquired knowledge. In other words, a consecutive bilingual will never have the same linguistic competence (in L2) of an early consecutive bilingual or a native speaker.

Richard Schmidt defines consciousness as:
» intentionality:
Conscious process;
Deliberate decision to learn L2.
» incidental learning:
Knowledge through exposure to some input.

Larry Selinker (1972): “A second language is not an imperfect copy of the target language, but a linguistic system that is governed by rules in its own right.”

• Rod Ellis (1990):
• “Interlanguage is a linguistic system.”
• “Interlanguage consists of implicit linguistic knowledge.”
• “Interlanguage is permeable.”
• “Interlanguage is variable.”
• “Interlanguage is the product of forces that interact among themselves: input, transfer, learning mechanisms.”
• “Interlanguage may fossilize.”

sexta-feira, 5 de novembro de 2010

Previously on "Language acquisition and Bilingualism"

Interlanguage 1

The term ‘interlanguage’ was coined by the American linguist, Larry Selinker, in recognition of the fact that L2 learners construct a linguistic system that draws, in part, on the learner’s L1 but is also different from it and also from the target language.
A learner’s interlanguage is, therefore, a unique linguistic system. The concept of interlanguage involves some premises about L2 acquisition:
 The learner constructs a system of abstract linguistic rules that underlies comprehension and production of the L2. This system is viewed as a ‘mental grammar’ and is referred to as ‘interlanguage.’
 The learner’s grammar is open to influence from the outside (input) and inside (internal processing). Some of the internal processing characteristics are known as omission, overgeneralization, and transfer.
 The learner’s grammar is transitional. It changes from time to time (adding rules, deleting rules, restructuring the whole system). The natural product is an interlanguage continuum. That is, learners construct a series of mental grammars or interlanguages as they gradually increase the complexity of their L2 knowledge.
 The different kinds of errors learners produce reflect different learning strategies. For example, omission errors may suggest that learners are in some way simplifying the learning task by ignoring grammatical features that they are not yet ready to process. Overgeneralization and transfer errors can also be seen as evidence of learning strategies.
 The learner’s grammar is likely to fossilize. Selinker suggested that only about five per cent of learners go on to develop the same mental grammar as native speakers. The majority stop some way short. The prevalence of backsliding is typical of fossilized learners. Fossilization does not occur in L1 acquisition and thus is unique to L2 grammars.
 (From: Ellis, R (2001) Second Language Acquisition. OUP.)